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IMR JADI MAKMAL RUJUKAN SELESEMA KHINZIR DI MALAYSIA

IMR telah bersiap sedia untuk menerima spesimen kes selesema babi, sebagai makmal rujukan dan ini juga merupakan salah satu daripada langkah pencegahan dan kawalan. Langkah-langkah lain seperti di bawah. Untuk jenis ujian DIAGNOSTIK SILA lihat di bawah.


CIRI-CIRI selesema khinzir

Hidung berair atau tersumbat

Sakit tekak

batuk dan demam

sakit-sakit tubuh badan

Sakit kepala

Seram sejuk atau mengigil apabila terkena air, kelesuan, cirit atau muntah


IMR Makmal Rujukan Selesema Babi


Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Teknikal Influenza Pandemik melibatkan pelbagai agensi kerajaan yang bermesyuarat semalam telah mengiktiraf Institut Penyelidikan Perubatan (IMR) sebagai makmal rujukan bagi selesema babi.

"Langkah mengenal pasti IMR, yang bersiap sedia menerima spesimen kes selesema babi, sebagai makmal rujukan merupakan satu daripada langkah pencegahan dan kawalan yang dilakukan kerajaan," kata Ketua Pengarah Kesihatan Tan Sri Dr Mohd Ismail Merican (foto) dalam kenyataan Khamis.

Pandemik yang menular di sembilan negara termasuk United Kingdom, Amerika Syarikat dan Kanada, telah ditingkatkan dari Fasa 4 ke Fasa 5 oleh Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) semalam.

"Pengisytiharan Fasa 5 adalah isyarat jelas bahawa virus yang mengancam nyawa ini berkemungkinan besar menyebabkan pandemik pada bila-bila masa sahaja dan masa yang masih ada untuk melengkapkan persediaan daripada segi organisasi, komunikasi dan perlaksanaan pelan tindakan pengurangan risiko adalah sangat singkat," katanya.

Beliau berkata Bahagian Kawalan Penyakit Kementerian Kesihatan dan Jabatan Kesihatan Negeri telah mengaktifkan Bilik Gerakan untuk memantau situasi wabak dengan WHO bagi memastikan tindakan proaktif diambil untuk melindungi penduduk Malaysia.

Antara langkah lain yang akan dilakukan ialah meningkatkan tahap waspada semua jabatan kesihatan kerajaan dan swasta; pemberian vaksin influenza bermusim kepada anggota bertugas di barisan hadapan;

Yang turut ditingkatkan tahap kewaspadaan dan persediaan ialah 28 hospital yang dikenal pasti untuk menerima kes selesema babi, memastikan proses penghantaran vaksin di sembilan pusat simpanan stok antiviral di seluruh negara berjalan lancar;

Saringan kesihatan di semua pintu masuk antarabangsa; kerjasama Kementerian Penerangan, Komunikasi dan Kebudayaan dan Kementerian Kesihatan; dan peningkatan pemantauan Jabatan Perkhidmatan Haiwan di ladang ternakan babi termasuk menyuntik vaksin.

Setakat ini tiada kes selesema babi dilaporkan di negara ini.

Seorang pesakit yang disyaki menghidap jangkitan itu telah diperiksa oleh IMR semalam dan laporan kesihatan menunjukkannya negatif daripada wabak itu, kata Dr Mohd Ismail.



BERNAMA

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What Is the Clinical Presentation of Swine Flu?

Persons infected with swine flu may appear similar to those with seasonal influenza, presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Symptoms include at least 2 of the following:

Rhinorrhea or nasal congestion;

Sore throat;

Cough; and

Fever.

In addition, persons with swine flu may have other typical symptoms of influenza, including body aches, headache, chills, fatigue, and possibly diarrhea and vomiting.

Who Is Most at Risk for Swine Flu?

The CDC recommends that clinicians particularly consider the possibility of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in patients with fevers and respiratory symptoms who:

Live in areas in the United States with confirmed human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. (To find the most up-to-date information on areas with confirmed swine influenza cases, go to http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/index.htm)

Traveled recently to Mexico or were in contact with persons who had febrile respiratory illness and were in areas of the United States with confirmed swine influenza cases or Mexico in the 7 days preceding illness onset.

In addition, a person with an acute respiratory illness who has a recent history of contact with an animal with confirmed swine influenza should also be suspected (http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/recommendations.htm). What Is the Range of Illness Severity Seen With Swine Flu?

Many cases of swine flu may be mild or even asymptomatic. In the past, cases were identified by chance as part of regular seasonal influenza surveillance. Most of the recent cases seen in the United States thus far have been mild as well. However, in Mexico, many patients' illnesses have been much more severe, have presented in young adults, and have included pneumonia, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Illness-related fatalities have been recorded in Mexico. At this time, it is not clear why such differences in illness severity have been seen. Early in epidemics it is difficult to gauge severity because the overall denominator of people infected is unknown.

How Should Swine Flu Be Diagnosed?

Preferred specimens. If swine flu is suspected, clinicians should obtain a respiratory specimen for analysis. In an ideal situation, the best method is via nasal pharyngeal aspirate or nasal wash aspirate into viral culture media; however, some experts are recommending the use of Dacron nasal swabs to decrease aerosolization of the virus. If these specimens cannot be collected, a combined nasal swab with an oropharyngeal swab is also acceptable and will be feasible in most settings. (Ideally, swab specimens should be collected using swabs with a synthetic tip and an aluminum or plastic shaft. Swabs with cotton tips and wooden shafts are not recommended. Specimens collected with swabs made of calcium alginate are not acceptable.)

The specimen should be placed in a 4°C refrigerator (not a freezer) or immediately placed on ice or cold packs for transport to the laboratory. Once collected, make contact with the state or local health department to facilitate transport and timely diagnosis at a state public health laboratory.

Recommended tests. The CDC currently recommends "real-time RT-PCR for influenza A, B, H1, H3 conducted at a State Health Department Laboratory. Currently, swine influenza A (H1N1) virus will test positive for influenza A and negative for H1 and H3 by real-time RT-PCR. If reactivity of real-time RT-PCR for influenza A is strong (e.g., Ct ≤ 30) it is more suggestive of a novel influenza A virus." Confirmation as swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is now performed at the CDC but may be available in state public health laboratories soon.

Rapid influenza testing. Rapid testing for swine flu likely is similar to that for seasonal flu, meaning that sensitivities range between 50% and 70% of cases (no better than using fever and cough as a marker in a patient during influenza season), depending on the manufacturer. Therefore, negative rapid tests should not indicate a lack of influenza. (For general guidance on rapid influenza testing, see http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/diagnosis/rapidlab.htm)

Rapid tests can distinguish between influenza A and B viruses. A patient with a positive rapid test for influenza A may meet criteria for a probable case of swine flu, but again, a negative rapid test could be a false negative and should not be assumed a final diagnostic test for swine influenza infection.

Other tests.

Immunofluorescence (DFA or IFA) tests can distinguish between influenza A and B viruses. A patient who is positive for influenza A by immunofluorescence may meet criteria for a probable case of swine influenza. However, a negative immunofluorescence could be a false negative and should not be assumed a final diagnostic test for swine influenza infection.

Isolation of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus by viral culture is also diagnostic of infection but may not yield timely results for clinical management. A negative viral culture does not exclude infection with swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

To stay up-to-date on the latest recommendations for testing, check regularly at: http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/specimencollection.htm

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